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Gym Dictionary: Ga - Iz

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We’ve been assembling a list of gym terms, gym speak and other gym related words and expressions for a few years now. The list is far from complete but we add a few more things weekly. If there is a term, or miuscle or any other form of lingo that makes you feel awkward or confused, then this is a good place to look for what it actually means.

From A to Z we may have the gym

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Aa - Az .. Ba - Bz .. Ca - Cz Ea - Fz .. Ga - Iz .. Ja - Nz .. Oa - Pz Qa - Sq .. Sr - Tz .. Ua - Zz
Gastrocnemius Muscle Gastrocnemius muscle is a strong plantar flexor of the ankle and weakly flexes the knee. Giant Sets Series of four to six exercises done with little to no rest between movements and a rest interval of two to three minutes between sets. You can perform giant sets for either two antagonistic muscle groups or a single body part. Gloves Many bodybuilders have used gloves to improve their grip in certain exercise, as well as prevent callusing from occurring. Another method is chalk, which, when put on your hands, can also improve grip considerably. If you have sensitive skin, or for any other reason feel you would benefit from the use of gloves, then by all means invest in a pair, which should not run you any more than 10 dollars. If you do develop calluses, this will also toughen up your hands, and make the use of gloves non essential. Gluconeogenesis The formation of glycogen from fatty acids and proteins rather than carbohydrates. Glucose A simple sugar found in certain foods, especially fruits, and a major source of energy occurring in human and animal body fluids. Glucose, when ingested or produced by the digestive hydrolysis of double sugars and starches, is absorbed into the blood from the intestines. Excess glucose in circulation is normally polymerized and stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen, which is depolymerized to glucose and liberated as needed. Gluteal  Muscle The 'Glutes' is an abbreviation of the gluteals - also known as the buttock muscles. The three main ones are the Gluteus Maximus, Medius and Minimus. Gluteus Maximus Muscle Gluteus Maximus is the largest and most superficial of the three gluteal muscles which forms the rounded shape of the buttocks. Gluteus Medius Muscle Gluteus Medius is an important muscle in controlling the level of the hips. Weaknesses in gluteus medius often result in a trendelenburg sign, an abnormal gait cycle. Gluteus Minimus Muscle This is the smallest of the three gluteal muscles. It abducts the hip and assists with internal rotation as the femur abducts. Glycogen Blood sugar stored in the muscles, liver, and to a lesser extent the bloodstream. Glycogen helps to fuel muscle contractions. Glycogenesis The biomechanical process by which glucose is converted into glycogen. Glycogenolysis The biomechanical process by which the liver converts stored glycogen back into glucose for use as a fuel. Glycolysis A series of enzymatically catalyzed reactions, occurring within cells, by which glucose and other sugars are broken down to yield lactic acid or pyruvic acid, releasing energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate. Aerobic glycolysis yields pyruvic acid in the presence of oxygen. Anaerobic glycolysis yields lactic acid. Gracilis Muscle Gracilis is another muscle which works in conjunction with the groin muscles and is also a weak knee flexor. Groin Muscles The groin muscles are sometimes also call the 'adductor's. This describes the movement that they all perform. There are five adductors in total. Growth Hormone Peptide hormone secreted by the pituitary gland responsible for the repair and growth of tissues such as bones, muscles, and organs. In recent years, growth hormone has become one of the most popular agents used by professional bodybuilders. Gynecomastia Condition in males caused by an excess of testosterone or an excess of a testosterone-derived agent. When it becomes converted (aromatized) to estrogen the excess estrogen stimulates receptors in the nipple area leading to a swelling which resembles female breasts. The condition is commonly called "bitch tits". The condition is often severe enough to require surgery. Hamstring Muscle The hamstring muscles are found at the back of the thigh. They are three muscles which act on both the hip and knee joints. Holistic Workouts Sessions in which a broad spectrum of weight-rep combinations, ranging from heavy / low-rep work to light / high-rep training is followed. Hormone Chemical messenger released by an endocrine gland that travels to a target organ and produces a given response. Hormones may be steroid or peptide in nature. Secretion of hormones by the endocrine gland is regulated by other hormones, by neurotransmitters, and by a negative - feedback system in which an excess of target organ activity signals a decreased need for the stimulating hormone. Horse Shoe The horse shoe is an individual hand grip you can use to perform exercises such as one - handed cable curls, and one - handed triceps pressdowns. This can also be used for other body parts, such as back (one - handed cable rows), and shoulders (cable lateral raises). Hyperplasia The theoretical ability of a single muscle fiber to split into two fibers. Hypertrophy The scientific term denoting an increase in muscle mass and an improvement in relative muscular strength. Hypertrophy is induced by placing an "overload" on the working muscles with various techniques during a bodybuilding workout. IFBB The International Federation of Bodybuilders. Founded in 1946 by bodybuilding moguls Joe and Ben Weider. With approximately 150 participating nations, the IFBB proves that bodybuilding is one of the most popular of all sports internationally. Through its member national federations, the IFBB oversees competition in each nation. It directly administers amateur and professional competitions for men and women, as well as mixed pairs, internationally. Iliopsoas Muscle A powerful hip flexor, also assists in externally rotating the femur. Infraspinatus Muscle Infraspinatus is one of the rotator cuff muscles. It sits on the back of the shoulder blade, below the spine of the scapula and attaches to the greater tuberosity on the humerus. Insulin Hormone produced by the pancreas which controls the blood's level of glucose and amino acids. Intensity The relative degree of effort you put into each set of every exercise in a bodybuilding workout. The more intensity you place on a working muscle, the more quickly it will increase in hypertrophy. The most basic methods of increasing intensity are to use heavier weights in good form on each exercise, do more reps with a set weight, or perform a consistent number of sets and reps with a particular weight in a movement, but progressively reducing the length of the rest interval between each set. Intermediate Bodybuilder A bodybuilder with six to 12 months of bodybuilding experience. Intermediate Type See Mesomorph Internal Obliques Muscle The internal obliques wrap around the waist and insert into the linea alba, a cord like strip of connective tissue running down the centre of the abdomen. Inversion Turning the bottom of the foot toward the inside. For calf raises this hits the inner head of the gastrocnemius. Involuntary Muscle See Smooth Muscle Isolation Exercise In contrast to a basic exercise, an isolation movement stresses a single muscle group (or sometimes just part of a single muscle) in relative isolation from the remainder of the body. Isolation exercises are good for shaping and defining various muscle groups. For your thighs, squats would be a typical basic movement, while leg extensions would be the equivalent isolation exercise. Isokinetic Contraction Isokinetic contractions can refer to either a concentric or eccentric contraction. Isokinetic contraction occurs at a set speed against a force of maximal resistance produced at all points in the range of motion. This contraction type is performed under controlled same - speed conditions. Isometric Contraction Isometric contraction is a muscular contraction not accompanied by movement of the joint. The muscle is neither lengthened nor shortened but tension changes can be measured. Due to the lack of visible muscle shortening, there is no movement of the actins. The term "dynamic tension" was used by Charles Atlas to refer to this term. Isotonic Contraction In an isotonic contraction, the tension within the muscle remains the same throughout the motion, which is to say the force of the contraction remains constant. This is also called the positive portion of an exercise movement. There are two aspects of isotonic contraction, concentric, and eccentric. Concentric contraction occurs when the muscle fibers shorten as tension develops. At the onset of the movement, the actin and myosin filaments have tremendous pulling force. Thus you will be stronger in the initial phase of most movements. Toward the end or near the peak of contraction, the ability of the filaments to slide toward each other reaches a limit and strength weakens. An eccentric contraction is the type of muscle contraction that involves lengthening the muscle fibers, such as when a weight is lowered through a range of motion. The muscle yields to the resistance, allowing itself to be stretched. Here the actin and myosin slide away from each other. The level of force generated is much higher in the eccentric phase as opposed to the concentric phase. This is due to the added friction in the eccentric portion. Concentric aspect is a form of muscle contraction that occurs when muscle fibers shorten as tension develops. Eccentric aspect is a contraction that involves lengthening the muscle fibers, such as when a weight is lowered through a range of motion. The muscle yields to the resistance, allowing itself to be stretched. This is the age of the focused eccentric contraction. Too often bodybuilders focus their attention only on the positive motion (concentric) and pay little attention to the negative motion (eccentric). It is a matter of common sense to perform the lowering of resistance with at least as much focus and effort given to lifting the same weight.
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