We’ve been assembling a list of gym terms, gym speak and other gym related words and expressions for a few years now. The list is far from complete but we add a few more things weekly. If there is a term, or miuscle or any other form of lingo that makes you feel awkward or confused, then this is a good place to look for what it actually means.
StackingThe practice of taking two or more performance - enhancing drugs at one time. The actual drugs, combinations, and dosages are known as a stack.Static ContractionsA muscle contraction is static when the length of the muscle does not shorten during contraction. All muscle fibers enervated by a single motor nerve fiber from the spinal cord are called motor units, each of which may supply up to 150 or more muscle fibers. The strength of contraction increases in proportion to the number of motor units fired. Although a whole muscle cannot fully contract at once, a single fiber of it contracts fully, never partially, when stimulated by a motor nerve fiber. As the number of contracting motor units increases, the force of contraction increases proportionally. This also occurs when a muscle is tensed without movement. High intensity training over a prolonged period of time improves the ability of a neuro muscular system to recruit a greater number of motor units (volley firing), and thus creates a greater number of muscle fibers to contract.Static StretchingHere, you stretch the muscle slowly and gradually and hold the stretch for 10 to 60 seconds. Because the stretch occurs slowly, there is much less reaction from the stretch receptors. Static stretching is the type most often recommended by fitness experts because it is as effective and safer than other types of stretching exercises. The key to this technique is to stretch the muscles and joints to the point where you feel a pull but not to the point of pain. Over stretching the muscle leads to injuries.Sternocleidomastoid MuscleSternocleidomastoid (SCM) can clearly be seen when you turn your head to one side, on the opposite side of the neck.SteroidBiochemical term used to denote a molecule having three, 6 carbon - containing rings, and one, 5 - carbon - containing ring. Steroid molecules form the nucleus of many of the body's hormones.Steroid HormonesAny of the ductless gland secretions that contain the basic steroid nucleus in their chemical formulae. The natural steroid hormones include the androgens, estrogens, and adrenal cortex secretions.Steroid ReplacerGeneral term used to describe any naturally occurring substance that supposedly duplicates the effects of anabolic steroids. As of yet, no "steroid replacer" is as effective as any anabolic drug.Sticking PointA stalling of bodybuilding progress. Also that point in a movement at which you fail to continue the upward momentum of the bar.StimulantsClass of drugs that increase or excite the central nervous system (CNS). Stimulants may be mild (ephedrine), or powerful (amphetamines).Straight Short BarThis bar is used in exercises such as the triceps pushdown, as well as biceps exercises such as cable curls. It can also be used for back exercises, and other body partsStrapsStraps are fastened around your wrists and then twisted around a bar to strengthen your grip in exercises where grip is your weakest link. Hand strength will not develop as quickly if you use straps, but this may be worth the value of being able to lift heavier weights which will result in a better developed back. Weighing the opportunity cost of straps is largely personal preference, and you can achieve great results with or without including them in your regiment of bodybuilding aids.StretchingA type of exercise program in which you assume exaggerated postures that stretch muscles, joints, and connective tissues, hold these positions for several seconds, and then relax and repeat the postures. Regular stretching exercise promotes body flexibility and reduces the chance of injuries while training with heavy iron.StressStress can be defined as anything that causes stress on the body's physical or mental resources. Working out is a great way to reduce your levels of stress caused by day to day living. Lifting weights is a stress on the body that is enjoyable and takes pressures off the other stresses you are undergoing; it is a type of stress you will like to include in your everyday life. Although stress has many negative connotations, the stress which you will undergo in the gym is (almost) enjoyable and, if controlled properly will invoke a positive response in both your physical and mental fitness. If you are mentally or physically stressed in your day to day life away from the gym, it will be more difficult for your body to respond with positive muscle growth. Reducing your levels of stress related to your emotional, financial and work related stresses (as well as others) is essential to maximize gains made in the gym. At the same time, bodybuilding is a method of reducing these stresses, and in very little time with some hard work and dedication you will see your stress levels decrease after taking up recreational bodybuilding.Stretch MarksTiny tears in a bodybuilder's skin caused by poor diet and too rapid increases in body weight. If you notice stretch mark forming on your own body, consult your physician for advice. One solution which has worked for many people is to rub vitamin - E cream over the stretch two of three times per day (unless you are allergic to the cream), and try cutting back on your body weight by reducing body - fat levels. It's much better to add pure muscle mass than excess fat when attempting to gain body weight.Striated MuscleMuscle tissue, including all the skeletal muscles, that consists of myofibrils. Striated muscles are composed of bundles of parallel, striated fibers. Each striated muscle is covered by a thin connective epimysium and divided into bundles of sheathed fibers containing smaller myofribrils. The muscle's contractile units, or sarcomeres, comprise the larger protein strands or myofribrils.StriationsThe tiny grooves of muscle across major muscle groups in a highly defined bodybuilder. If you have muscle striations, even when completely relaxed, you know you are in optimum condition.Subscapularis MuscleSubscapularis is one of the four rotator cuff muscles which cross the shoulder joint. The muscle also acts to hold the head of the humerus in position and prevents it moving forwards.SugarAny of several water - soluble carbohydrates. The two principal categories of sugards are monosaccharides and disaccharides. A monosaccharide is a single sugar such as glucose, fructose, or galactose. A disaccharide is a doble sugar such as sucrose (table sugar) or lactose.SupinationYou supinate your hand when you turn the palm down.Supinator MuscleThe Supinator muscle assists Biceps Brachii in supinating the hand, that is turning it over so that the palm faces up.SupineLying horizontally on the backSupplementsConcentrated vitamins, minerals, and proteins used by bodybuilders to improve the overall quality of their diets. Many bodybuilders believe that food supplements help promote quality muscle growth.Supraspinatus MuscleThe Supraspinatus muscle is one of the four muscles which make up the rotator cuff. Its main function is to stabilise the upper arm by holding the head of the humerus in position.SymmetryThe shape or general outline of a person's body, as when seen in silhouette. If you have good symmetry, you will have relatively wide shoulders, flaring lats, a small waist - hip structure, and general small joints.SynergismThe biochemical phenomenon where two or more drugs interact to produce an effect that is greater than the effects of the individual drugs. In bodybuilding terms, growth hormone and IGF - 1 taken separately produce limited results, but when taken together produce dramatic increases in size and strength.Temporary Muscular Failure (TMF)That point an an exercise at which you have so fully fatigued the working muscles that they can no longer complete an additional repetition of a movement with strict form. You should always take your post - warm up sets at least to the point of momentary muscular failure, and frequently past that point. Also known as Failure.TendonThe tough tissue that connects muscles to bones.Tensor Fascia Latae MuscleThe Tensor Fasciae Latae (TFL) is a small muscle which attaches inferiorly to the long thick strip of fascia, known as the iliotibial band (ITB).Teres Major MuscleTeres Minor is one of the four rotator cuff muscles surrounding the shoulder. Its main action, along with Infraspinatus is to externally rotate the shoulder joint.TestosteroneThe male hormone primarily responsible for maintenance of muscle mass and strength induced by heavy training. Testosterone is secondarily responsible for developing such secondary male sex characteristics as a deep voice, body and facial hair, and male pattern baldness.ThermogenesisHeat production not accounted for by resting metabolic rate or physical activity. Progress by which stored fat is liberated and mobilized so that it can be burned as a fuel source. The most popular bodybuilding thermogenic agents are ephedrine and caffeine. Factors stimulating thermogenesis include food intake, thermogenic substances (such as adrenaline, some drugs, some types of food and some herbs), cold exposure and psychological stress. Thermogenesis normally accounts for around 15% of daily energy expended.Thoracic TypeSee EctomorphThyroid GlandSmall gland located at the neck that controls the body's level of calcium and overall metabolic rate. Bodybuilders often add thyroid drugs to their precontest drug stacks to increase their body's metabolic rate and increase the rate of fat loss.Tibialis Anterior MuscleTibialis anterior forms the main fleshy part of the outside of the shin. It is a dorsiflexor of the ankle.Tibialis Posterior MuscleThe Tibialis Posterior is the deepest of all the calf muscles. It helps to support the arch of the foot.TowelA towel should be part of your essential gym equipment.Training PartnerA training partner should be someone who is willing to take the time he or she is devoting to bodybuilding, and share it with you. He or she should be willing to make time in his or her schedule to workout with you, as well as offer you constructive advice and a good spot for those hard to perform, heavy lifts. It is very important that both you and your training partner care about the success and development of the pair, and make efforts to motivate and encourage each other into achieving new muscular growth. A training partner who does not have much concern over making it to the gym with you, and helping you out isn't much of a benefit to either of you. A training partner who does not offer you constructive advice isn't really helping you either, if advice is what you are looking for. Also, it is very effective if both you and your training partner are trying to achieve the same bodybuilding goals. This makes it a lot more natural for both of you to help each other with steps along the way to achieving those goals.Transversus Abdominis MuscleTransversus Abdominis is often abbreviated to TVA. This is a very important core muscle which is vital in maintaining good posture. Activities such as Pilates focus on contraction of the TVA.Trapezius MuscleThe trapezius muscle (Trapz) is a large muscle consisting of four parts covering the upper back, shoulders and neck.Triceps Brachii MuscleThe Triceps Brachii also assists Latissimus Dorsi in extending the shoulder joint. It contracts strongly during the up phase of a push up, to straighten the arm.TrisetsA series of three exercises performed with not rest between movements and a normal rest interval between trisets. Trisets increase training intensity by reducing the average length of rest interval between sets. As such, trisets are markedly more intense than supersets.